Let's explore a balloon-shaped plant! This plant’s scientific name is Echinocactus grusonii. This plant’s common name is Golden Barrell Cactus. Look closely at the photos and videos below. What do you notice? How do you think this plant has adapted to survive in its environment?
Scientific Name: Echinocactus grusonii (eh-KY-no-kak-tus groo-soh-nee-eye)
Common Name: Golden Barrel Cactus
Range: Mexico, North America
Armor. Spines protect the plant from hungry and thirsty animals (including humans). Animals need water and nutrients to stay alive. Plants are a great source of water and nutrients for animals, but plants need to hold onto their own water and nutrients! Armor is an adaptation to protect the plant from hungry animals. The spines also provide shade to this desert plant.
Succulence. This stem is thick because it is full of water. Succulent plants often have squishy leaves or stems because the organ is filled with liquid! Succulence is when a plant stores water in its leaves or stems. This Golden Barrel Cactus stores water in its stem. When it is very dry in the plant's environment, this plant can use its stored water to help it stay alive. Succulence is an adaptation to help the plant survive in hot and dry environments.
No Leaves. Leaves take energy to keep alive. Leaves are covered in tiny pores called stomas. Stomas release water into the environment when they open. Plants living in places with very little water need to save as much water as they can, and this adaptation can help with that. Instead of making leaves to photosynthesize, this plant uses its stem for photosynthesis. The stomas are on the stem surface. Having no leaves is an adaptation to help the plant survive in hot and dry environments.
Waxy Surfaces. All leaves have a cuticle that protects the leaf and helps to keep water inside. Some stems also have a waxy covering on the outside. Some plants have adapted an especially thick waxy cuticle. When the cuticle is thick, the plant keeps even more water inside! Waxy cuticles are an adaptation to help the plant survive in hot and dry environments.
Questions & Prompts
- What do you observe?
- What do you wonder?
- Imagine touching this plant. What would it feel like? Do you think different parts of the plant feel different?
- If you could ask this plant one question, what would you ask?
- This plant’s common name (or nickname) is Golden Barrel Cactus. Why do you think people chose this common name? What common name (or nickname) would you give to this plant? Why?
- What do you think would happen to this plant if it were transplanted to a rainforest? Why do you think that?
What colors do you see on this plant? Do you see any of these greens? Can you recreate these colors using art supplies?
- What do you think this plant’s stem looks like on the inside? Create an artwork or write a descriptive paragraph.
- Be an engineer! Study the adaptations that help this cactus survive in a low water environment. Create an invention that uses the same features the Golden Barrel Cactus uses. What does your invention do?
Be an artist! Create an abstract artwork based on this plant’s features. When you’re done, write a label for your artwork.
Be an artist! Create a pattern artwork based on a plant part pattern you see. When you’re done, write a label for your artwork.
Be an artist! Create a work of botanical art for this plant.
- Write from the perspective of a small desert animal (you choose which animal). The animal encounters this plant for the first time. What do they think? What do they notice? What do they do?
Resources and References
“Echinocactus Grusonii (Golden Barrel Cactus).” 2013. World of Succulents (blog). March 17, 2013. https://worldofsucculents.com/echinocactus-grusonii-golden-barrel-cactus/.
“Search Tree Collections.” n.d. Accessed June 7, 2021. /search.